The next step in discovery is mechanically simple. The player rolls her persona’s investigation dice, and keeps the number of dice indicated by the elements of her investigation. The result of this roll is the pool of points that the player can use to describe the information that her character has discovered. Again, this is done in terms of elements.

Each element has a discovery cost, which is the number of points needed to make it part of the information discovered. Standard elements also have an incorporation cost and a number of dice, which are used when generating a theory in the next stage. A low incorporation cost and a high number of dice is good, because that will tend to produce a better theory. Naturally, a low incorporation cost and a high number of dice mean that the element has a high discovery cost.

Once an element has been discovered, it is part of the description of the subject. If, for example, the persona discovers that a character likes cats, then that character does like cats. The character may change her preferences over time, but even if she does it will at least be true that she did like cats. This means that some elements will exclude others; a character who likes cats cannot dislike them as well. Of course, a character can like cats and dislike dogs, so these restrictions will often be simple, and a matter of common sense.

When the personae are discovering something about a subject that is not a part of the real world, however, these links between elements become more important. If an element is a feature of a subject, it might make some impossible, and others more or less expensive. The players are, effectively, creating the topic as they investigate it, so these relationships will mean that the topics will fit into the game background. This, however, is a complicated issue that doesn’t apply to investigating people, and so I will come back to it later.

Some elements have a relatively low incorporation cost or high number of dice for their discovery cost, because they also introduce complications into the personae’s lives. For example, discovering that someone is a huge fan of first edition D&D books is useful, because it suggests an ideal gift. Quite an expensive ideal gift, however, and one that may not be easily available, so that adds story potential to the creation of the action that will build the relationship.

While the number of dice granted will always be positive, and normally not more than one or two, the incorporation cost can be negative. This is necessary because of the mechanics for building a theory, as I will discuss in the next post.

Not all the elements discovered in this step need to contribute to a theory. At least some of them should, because the theory is typically the purpose of the investigation, but there are other options. This is one of the places in which a persona can discover a special element that grants a bonus to some other task. These elements have discovery costs, but their other statistics may be quite different.

Any subject has a number of elements available for discovery. Only the ones that have been discovered are known to be true of the subject, however. Other elements may be true of different examples of that sort of thing (different kami, for example), and elements that are not inconsistent with what is known may also be true of this subject. It is possible that the personae have simply not learned everything about it yet. Nevertheless, those elements cannot be used in play because, even if they are true, the personae do not yet know that, and so cannot use them.

The final stage of discovery is creating the theory. How does that work?


The investigation phase of discovery does not involve any die rolls. Instead, the players describe how the persona is investigating the subject, and describe something of what she finds. This is tied to the game mechanics by elements.

The elements of this phase describe things that the persona does to investigate. Each element has two statistics: a cost, and a number of dice. A player may only incorporate elements with a total cost equal to or less than her persona’s score in the investigation ability. That is, if she has a score of 4, the total cost of the elements used to describe the investigation must be 4 or less. In addition, because the elements describe how the persona investigates, each can only be used once. It isn’t a single action; it represents the application of a certain approach to the persona’s investigation of the subject.

The higher the number of dice, the better, because these are the dice that the player gets to keep when rolling for the next stage of the discovery, when the persona puts together what she has discovered to provide information that will be useful in developing a theory. However, the default investigation elements, available to any persona, will have a higher cost than the number of dice that they provide. The simplest benefit of a higher score in the investigation ability is that it allows a persona to use more of them, and thus have more dice to keep. However, a high score may also allow access to a limited number of more effective elements. Personae might also gain access to effective elements in play, as mentioned earlier. For example, if a character gave the personae her diary in play, the element “Read her diary”, which might cost 1 point and give 4 dice, would become available to all the personae. For general elements, personae might learn effective investigation techniques.

While the persona’s player describes how she is investigating, the other players describe what she finds. This is important, to keep all the players involved, and also because the investigation might involve the persona talking to characters. In such a case, the other players take on the roles of the characters. If the persona is investigating something that is not alive, the other players just describe what she finds. The players introduce elements when saying what the persona uncovers.

These elements do not interpret the findings, because that is the job of the next stage. They simply describe the immediate results of the investigation. For some things, these elements will be defined by the game, and there will be suggestions for everything, but for many topics the players can make them up. If the personae are trying to find out what a character likes, for example, the players can just say things that are plausible things for a person to say in those circumstances. They do need to define the element, however, because that will be important in the next stage, when the persona works out what she has discovered.

Every element must be played out, the players describing what the personae and characters do. The investigation ends when the persona’s player has described how she is applying every element, and the other players have described what she finds. At this point, there should be two or three elements on the table, giving a superficial description of the evidence that the persona has found. (I find that I’m tending towards thinking of the elements as cards, in which case they might literally be on the table.)

Next, the persona describes what she has discovered, but that is the next stage, and will have its own post.

The Basis of Discovery

Discovery is also supposed to be an important part of Kannagara. In the grand concept, the discovery in question is things like discovering how to transform yourself into a kannagi, but discovering what sort of food someone likes so that you can cook her the perfect dinner falls under the same general category, and that’s the case that has come up first.

This is also a somewhat easier case than the profound discoveries about the universe, or about the secrets of the setting, because it does not raise the problem of whether the players should know things that the personae do not. The preferences of a particular character can be decided while playing through the discovery without undermining the consistency of the whole setting, and the sudden realisation of the truth is not, in this case, supposed to be a big moment for the players. There’s also no problem, I think, with accepting that the success of the discovery, measured in terms of the number of dice the personae keep for the assessment, reflects how well the personae understand the character’s preferences, and the players will not feel that they “need” to have the same understanding. That is, the players do not have to describe the character’s preferences in great detail just because the results of the investigation mean that the personae understand all the details.

I do want to use the same basic rule structure for all kinds of discovery, so this is a good place to define the first draft of those rules. Obviously, they could change beyond recognition in later revisions, but I have to start somewhere.

The discovery rules have three stages. First, the player describes how the persona is investigating the problem, and describes something of what she finds. Other players may also contribute to the description of what the investigating persona finds, even though their personae are not involved in this part of the investigation. No dice are rolled at this stage. Instead, the elements incorporated into the investigation give the player dice to keep at the next step.

In the second step, the player rolls her persona’s investigation skill, and keeps a number of dice determined by the elements that were incorporated into the investigation description. The result of the roll determines what information the player can describe the persona as having discovered. This information also takes the form of elements, which are used in the final step.

This third step is the generation of a theory. Once all the personae who want to have gathered information, and shared it with each other, each persona can try to create a theory. The number of dice to keep is determined in the previous stage, while the number of dice rolled is the relevant knowledge. This theory is primarily described in terms of game effects, and a higher result on the roll results in more favourable effects. This represents a better understanding of the situation.

This structure keeps all the players involved as much as possible. Everyone is involved in the investigation stage, and every persona gets her own information stage. Finally, each persona can try to generate a theory, so everyone can be involved at this point, too. Personae with better knowledge and better investigation abilities will, however, do better at it than others, and have their chance to shine.

I will describe each of the stages individually in the following posts.

Putting Numbers on Bonds

In order to make the rules for building relationships definite, I need to start attaching numbers to it. The best place to start is with the strength of relationships, since everything will develop from there.

A strong relationship is, let us say, a score of 6. This allows for a lot of differentiation between relationships; the average result of keeping 2 dice is only one higher than the minimum possible result from keeping 6. Of course, relationships can be even stronger than that, but we will assume that 6 is a normal maximum, and probably the default value for a father’s relationship with his children.

When you are building a relationship, you can try new positive actions at any time. Even if they do not improve the relationship, they will not make things worse, and I want to retain that in the game. The only limit is time. For a rough approximation, suppose that you are keeping the same number of dice for both the action and the character’s reaction to it. The maximum possible roll is 6N, where N is the number of dice you are keeping, and the maximum possible reaction total is 12N, because it is doubled. In order to improve the total, the difficulty must be no higher than 6N-1. If you roll the maximum possible result on the reaction total, the difficulty for the next action roll is 6N-1 if the running total, R, is such that R-(12N-R)=6N-1, or 2R-12N=6N-1, or 2R=18N-1. So, the highest possible total is 9 times the number of dice you are keeping.

This is too hard to reach, however, so we should set things a bit lower. 8 times the number of dice would be reasonable. Let us say that you need to be keeping 6 dice to build a really strong relationship, and set the difficulty at 8 times the level of relationship at which you are aiming.

How would we get that many dice? First, there’s the question of creating the action. We could use the same difficulty scale as the matsuri, with a base of one, so that just doing something generic lets you keep one die, and adding personalisation lets you keep more. In that case, getting to keep six dice would have a conception cost of 13 and a difficulty of 32. That should be just about possible for people keeping three dice to devise the action, because they can get the difficulty down to 27, and it’s reasonable for people with four. That means that, according to the rules, people who are decent but not incredible can create the actions that let them build a really good relationship. This is reasonable; building good relationships is not the province of an elite few in real life.

What about making the action appropriate to the character? That brings us back to the question of investigation and discovery, and so needs to be the subject of a different post. However, we do know that getting six dice should be just possible for people keeping three dice, and a reasonable target for people keeping four, again because most people can build good relationships. That will help me to fix the numbers.

Building Relationships

Creating and improving relationships with characters, and quite possibly between personae, should be one of the central activities of personae in Kannagara. Given the design philosophy of the game, that means that we need rules for building a relationship.

I don’t want to introduce something completely new, so I will use the structure of the perspiration stage of the creation mechanics. For creation, the inspiration stage sets the target for the creation, and the effects of the completed work, but that is not necessary for building a relationship. The effect of the completed work is a 1 point improvement in the relationship, and the difficulty depends on the current state of the relationship.

The equivalent of an embodiment roll is a roll to actually do something for the character. Here, the number of dice rolled is determined by the skill necessary to perform the action. Even giving someone a gift requires adherence to the rules of etiquette, after all. The number of dice kept is determined by the nature of the action, and how effective it is likely to be. The action itself will normally be designed using the full creation rules, and other personae may help to design the action. In some cases, they may all be able to participate in carrying it out. In this case, the number of dice to be kept when performing the action to improve the relationship will be an important feature of the thing being created.

Going through this process once will generate progress towards improving the relationship, but it probably will not complete it in most cases. It normally takes more than one action to build a relationship with someone, unless you are aiming for a very weak and casual relationship. So, a level 1 relationship might be within the reach of a single roll, but that should not be expected for one at level 3.

The place of the revision rolls is taken by a roll to assess how the character has reacted to the action, which provides guidance on what the persona should do next. Here, the persona rolls something like empathy, a skill involved in assessing how people feel. The number of dice to be kept depends on how well-suited to the character the action was. This is not the same as the number of dice measuring how effective an action is likely to be in general. Something can be quite minor, but very well suited to someone, or a major undertaking, but not close to her interests.

Note that the actions performed to build the relationship do not need to succeed, although the rules do model the fact that things move more quickly if the actions go well. That is, the result of the roll to perform the action may not be high enough to count as success in the action, while still improving the relationship. This is because, in this context, it really is the thought that counts. Putting a lot of effort into doing something for someone does improve the relationship, even if you are not completely successful in your action. A dismal failure won’t help much, but that’s reflected by the lack of progress personae get if they roll badly.

If you are only aiming for a weak relationship, you do not need to understand the other person well, or adapt to them. This reflects reality. I don’t drink, but if someone buys me a bottle of wine as a gift, that will contribute to making me feel more positive towards her. On the other hand, if she is trying to build a deeper relationship, she needs to find out that I don’t drink. That is reflected in the rolls that take the place of revisions. If the action is well suited to the character, the total on the revision roll is likely to be high, allowing the personae to make fast progress towards a higher relationship target.

This suggests that there will be another stage, before the personae even design the actions they will perform. They will try to find out about the character, to respond to her likes and desires. That links in to the general rules for discovery, and so it is something I will come back to a bit later. First, I need to make the rules for building relationships a little more concrete.

The Ties That Bind

Attitudes are not quite the same as relationships. A character might really trust a persona, believing that the persona never lies and always keeps her promises, without feeling that he has any particular tie to her. If she tells him something, he will probably believe it, but most of the time he doesn’t think about her, and she probably doesn’t think about him. The same applies to most of the other attitudes, although it is harder to see how it could be true of love and hate.

In game terms, however, I want to make relationships into something separate from attitudes, even for love and hate. The relationship between a persona and a character is a single number, and it is the same on both sides. There are no default relationships, so even a score of 1 in a relationship is significant. In cases where it matters, the same number is used on both sides; relationships, in game terms, have to be mutual. That means, for example, that a persona who has a strong relationship with a kami uses the same number for determining whether the kami answers her requests, and in determining her responses to the kami.

To give relationships an impact on the game, I want to use them as bonuses or penalties to the number of dice rolled for other actions. If a persona is trying to help someone she loves, she can get bonus dice to roll, increasing her chances of performing at the peak of her ability. Similarly, if someone she trusts has told her that a course of action is the wrong one, she takes a penalty to perform it; her confidence is undermined because, at the back of her mind, she wonders whether she is doing the right thing.

While these bonuses and penalties emphasise the importance of relationships, requiring them for every roll would really bog down play. The players would have to decide which characters might be affected, and thus which relationships were relevant, for every action. That would take far too long. Instead, I want to borrow an idea from FATE, specifically its use of invoking and compelling Aspects.

If a player wants her persona to get a bonus from a relationship, she has to spend a point from a resource statistic. That gets one relationship as a bonus to the number of dice to roll for one test, as long as the group agrees that the relationship is relevant and appropriate. If no-one else thinks the relationship is relevant, there is no bonus, but the player does not have to spend a point. Similarly, the relationship might not be appropriate; if the relationship is strong, but the attitudes on both sides are hatred and contempt, the relationship cannot provide a bonus to attempts to help the character.

In this case, the player may spend the point after rolling the dice without the bonus. It might make more “sense” to require the point to be spent first, but I suspect it is more fun in play this way around. In addition, while a player can only invoke a particular relationship once on a given roll, she can invoke other relationships as long as she has points to spend. (Note that, if the player starts off with fewer dice to roll than she keeps, she will have to reroll all the dice when she invokes a relationship. If she started with more, then she can just roll more dice.)

On the other hand, another player can give a player a point to say that a particular relationship causes problems. The second player receives the point, and then can choose whether to take the relationship as a penalty on the rolled dice, or to abandon the action out of consideration for the relationship. Of course, this is also subject to the group agreeing that the relationship is relevant and appropriate. In this case, the relationship can be invoked before the player rolls the dice, because one of the options is abandoning the action. Other players may also invoke the relationship after the roll, as long as the roll succeeded. In this case, the acting player may choose to declare that she never took the action in the first place, or she may adjust the dice and roll again. If she started off with more dice than she kept, she will need to reroll everything, but if she started off with fewer, she can just roll additional dice.

I think it would be a good idea to have a limit on the number of points that players can use to invoke other personae’s relationships to cause trouble. A simple way to do this is to have it cost one point from the invoking player’s pool, but have it grant two points to the other player. Of course, players will need an initial score in the pool, but that is no problem. The precise nature of this resource statistic is something to be decided later. Next, we need to start looking at how personae can change attitudes and build relationships with characters.

Using Attitudes

The most important function of attitudes in Kannagara will be in social interactions. An atttitude will often determine how many dice a player keeps when rolling to see whether her persona can convince a character to do or believe something.

The simplest example is of a persona trying to convince a character that the kami of the shrine really did speak to her and give her a message for the character. The difficulty for this roll is likely to be quite high, as most people do not readily believe that the kami send them messages. The player rolls a number of dice equal to the persona’s level in the relevant social skill, because the more skilled the persona is, the more likely she is to be convincing. The number of dice kept, however, is equal to the strength of the character’s trust in the persona. If he really trusts her, then he is likely to believe her even if she is not generally good at persuading people. On the other hand, if he does not trust her at all, she cannot convince him. She doesn’t get to keep any dice, so she cannot beat the difficulty.

It is almost as straightforward when a persona is trying to convince a character to help her. In that case, the character’s love for the persona would determine how many dice to keep. On the other hand, if the persona is trying to get a character to do something because it will be good for the character, the character’s hope in the persona may be the relevant score. If the character’s hope is high, he expects to get benefits from the persona, and so it is easy to persuade him that doing something with the persona will be good for him. If the action has nothing to do with the persona, then trust is probably more appropriate; the issue is whether the character believes the persona when she says that this will be good for him.

Negative attitudes mean that a persona cannot convince a character to do things in that way. If a character loves a persona, but also doubts her, then the persona can get that character to do things to help her, but cannot convince him that she is telling the truth, in general. If a character actively doubts a persona, then he will check even if she tells him that the sky is blue.

If the action in question involves another character, then attitudes to the third character provide bonus or penalty dice to roll. If a persona is trying to convince one character that another character is lying to him, then the level of the first character’s doubt in the second would be a bonus to the number of dice to roll, while positive trust in the second character would be a penalty. Similarly, love is a bonus to rolls to convince a character to benefit the person they love, and a penalty to rolls to convince the character to harm that person, and the opposite for hate.

Sometimes, two attitudes might interact. For example, consider a persona trying to convince a character that she can do something unlikely, such as talk to the kami. Trust might seem appropriate, but in this case, that really measures whether the character thinks that the persona believes what she is saying. The question of whether she can really do what she claims is more to do with awe. If the character has high trust in the character, but no sense that she is special in any way, his reaction will be to believe that she thinks she can talk to the kami, but not believe that she can actually do so. So, in this case, awe would determine the number of dice to keep, but trust would provide additional dice to roll.

This means that someone having a negative attitude to a persona will almost always be a problem for the persona. The exception is fear, which would serve as dice to keep when trying to intimidate a character into doing something. Fear, however, also serves as bonus dice to choose to harm the persona when the character thinks he can get away with it, because harming the persona makes punishment less likely. On the other hand, if a character has a positive attitude to the persona, this is good for the persona. This motivates personae to build positive attitudes, which is one aim of the game.

Attitudes, however, are not quite relationships. Attitudes can be one-sided, whereas a genuine relationship is not. In the next post, I want to look at how to represent relationships, and at how that interacts with attitudes.

Measuring Relationships

One of the main themes in Kannagara is building relationships between personae and characters, including kami. In the section on matsuri, I suggested that the strength of a kami’s relationship with a persona might be the number of dice she keeps when deciding whether to answer a request. It is time to look at the mechanics for relationships in a bit more detail.

A relationship, by definition, has to involve at least two people. One of them might not know that the other has a relationship with them, such as when someone longs for a celebrity, but if there is only one person involved, it is not a relationship. Even so, certain aspects of a relationship do belong on one side: the way that each person thinks about the other. I will call these attitudes, and I will discuss them first.

First, because I want to keep the mechanics as unified as possible, attitudes will be represented by numbers. These numbers will be used as numbers of dice to either roll or keep. What will the numbers represent?

The first, easy, point is that higher numbers represent a stronger attitude. The next question is what sort of attitude should be possible. Attitudes can be positive or negative, but there are also several different types. Because the attitudes will have game effects, the descriptions should be chosen with that in mind. Each type of attitude will have a particular kind of effect. At the moment, I’m looking at the following list.

Awe: The character thinks that the persona has excellent personal qualities, and is worthy of emulation.

Contempt: The character thinks that the persona is inferior to her.

Doubt: The character thinks that the persona is unreliable, and will lie and cheat.

Fear: The character wants to avoid suffering harm from the persona, and thinks that such harm is a serious risk.

Hate: The character wants to cause harm to the persona.

Hope: The character wants to get benefits from the persona, and thinks that this is a real possibility.

Love: The character wants to help the persona.

Trust: The character thinks that the persona is reliable, will keep her promises, and will tell the truth.

These attitudes obviously form pairs: Awe/Contempt, Hope/Fear, Love/Hate, Trust/Doubt. It would be possible for a character to have high scores in both hope and fear for the same persona, but that would not be normal for the other relationships. It shouldn’t be impossible, however — a love/hate relationship is a staple of fiction, and it does happen in real life. Similarly, awe and contempt can go together, attached to different aspects of a person. On the other hand, high levels of both trust and doubt do not make much sense. You can’t think that someone will both tell the truth and lie, at least not easily.

The attitudes held by the two sides tell us about the kind of relationship. An entirely one-sided relationship, such as that between a fan and a celebrity, has attitudes on only one side, probably including awe. An ideal relationship has high levels of love and trust on both sides. A codependent relationship has high levels of hope on both sides. A bad relationship has a high level of awe, love, hope, fear, and doubt on one side, and a high level of hope, contempt, hate, and trust on the other.

A character would probably have default levels for these attitudes, which are applied when dealing with someone she doesn’t know. High default levels of love and trust make a good person who is prone to exploitation, while high default levels of doubt and fear represent someone who is paranoid. High levels of doubt, hope, and contempt indicate a manipulator. High levels of doubt and love represent a good person who has experienced a bad environment. High levels of awe, hope, and doubt represent someone with low self-esteem.

Right now, I’m not sure whether these traits will be used to describe how personae feel about characters; I think I might leave that to roleplaying. If I do, then these traits would be traits of the persona, not the character; the way that the character feels about the persona is, for game purposes, a feature of the persona. The default traits would be features of the character, of course, but if the persona has a score in either or both of the pair, that overrides the defaults.

The next question is how these traits are used: how are they converted into dice?

Matsuri Creation Example

In this post, I want to give an example of creating a matsuri.

There are two people working together to design the matsuri. Yukihiko is a shinshoku, but still fairly young, while Hanami is a miko at the same shrine. Yukihiko has norito knowledge 4 and norito skill 2, mikë knowledge 2 and mikë skill 3, and kagura knowledge 4 and kagura skill 1. Hanami has norito knowledge 1 and norito skill 0, mikë knowledge 3 and mikë skill 2, and kagura knowledge 4 and kagura skill 5.

The matsuri has to grant at least 3 shin’i to the kami, or it cannot achieve its goal. Yukihiko and Hanami really want a positive response, so they want to roll as many dice as possible when the kami is deciding whether to answer the request.

The first stage is to write the norito. Yukihiko will do this part; Hanami has a score of 0 in the skill, so she cannot help. He rolls 4 dice, and keeps the best 2 for his conception roll. He rolls 6, 5, 5, 2, for a total of 11. This is enough for a 4-step norito, because the conception cost is 10 (1 for the first step, plus 3 for each of the three additional steps). However, a 4-step norito would have a difficulty of 25: the base is 26, and there is only one point left over from the conception cost. Hanami cannot help him to revise the norito, so he has no chance of actually writing a norito to match that concept.

A 3-step norito has a conception cost of 7, and a difficulty of 16. This might be possible, but as he has to do his own revisions, it is likely to be hard. The mikë and kagura could provide a further boost, so Yukihiko decides to go for a 2-step norito. That has a conception cost of 4, and a base difficulty of 14. With the seven points left over from his concept, Yukihiko can reduce the difficulty to 7. That’s well within his reach. For the concept element, his player chooses “a long description of the mikë”.

He starts creating the norito. For the first roll, he rolls 4 dice and keeps 2, getting 5,3,3,1, for a total of 8. The norito is completed right away, granting 2 additional steps to the matsuri. They can be used to increase the number of shin’i granted to 3, and Yukihiko includes the embodiment element “yama no sachi, umi no sachi”, one of the phrases used to describe the mikë.

The next stage is to design the mikë. Yukihiko has the higher skill here, so it makes sense for him to do the initial design. However, this time Hanami can help him with the revisions. Because Yukihiko’s knowledge is lower than his skill, he rolls four dice and keeps the lowest three. He gets 5,3,2,2, for a total of 7. That’s a bit unlucky, and the matsuri is not urgent, so he decides to try again, for a different concept. This time, he rolls 3,2,2,1, for a total of 5. He doesn’t have time to keep thinking of new concepts, so he goes back to the first one.

Since Hanami can help him develop it, he decides to go for a 2-step mikë, with a concept cost of 4 and a difficulty of 14. He can reduce the difficulty to 11, so he might just make it in one attempt, if he rolls well. As the concept element, he chooses “seasonal vegetables”. For his first embodiment roll he gets 4,3,3,1, for a total of 7. He’s really not rolling well. For the embodiment element, he chooses “fresh onions”.

Now it is Hanami’s turn to look at the mikë. She rolls three dice and keeps the best two, then doubles it because she is revising the design. She rolls 5,5,2, for a total of 10, doubled to 20. That is more than twice the current progress, so she can reduce the difficulty for Yukihiko’s next creation roll to zero. She chooses “bright red tomatoes” as the element. Yukihiko rolls the dice, and gets 6,6,5,1, for a total of 12. The mikë are designed: lots of seasonal vegetables, including fresh onions and bright red tomatoes. That gets them another 2 steps, which they can devote to increasing the number of dice the kami rolls.

Finally, it is time to design the kagura. Hanami takes the lead here. Because Yukihiko can play the music, she can go for a two-person kagura, getting a 1-step bonus for including kagura in the first place, and a further 1 step for including kagura with two people. Hanami rolls for the concept. She rolls 6 dice, and keeps the lowest 5. She gets 6,6,5,5,1,1. That’s a total of 18. She could go for a high concept, but Yukihiko will not really be able to help her with the revisions, because he only gets to keep 1 die. She decides to go for a 4-step concept, with a concept cost of 10, and a difficulty of 26, reduced to 18 by the excess points. As her concept, she takes “offering a tamagushi”.

For her first creation roll, she gets 5,3,3,3,2,2, for a total of 13. She adds the element “accompanied on a drum”, but now she needs to revise her own work. This means that the number of dice to roll is reduced by one, which actually means that she rolls one more die, but still keeps the lowest five. She rolls 6,5,4,2,1,1,1, for a total of 9, doubled to 18. Her difficulty on the revision roll will be 8, because she can subtract 5 from the current progress of 13. The element she adds is “bells on the tamagushi”. For the revision, she rolls 6 dice and keeps the lowest 5 again, getting 5,5,4,3,2,2, a total of 16. The kagura is completed. Because the concept adds 4 steps, and the two-person kagura adds 2 steps by itself, this adds 6 steps. Combined with the two from the mikë, they have 8 steps, so the kami will roll 8 dice when deciding whether to help. A positive response is very likely — as long as Yukihiko can successfully perform the kagura. He needs 4 or higher on R3K1, so there’s a very good chance that he will succeed.

The matsuri has a norito that includes a long description of the mikë, using the phrase “yama no sachi, umi no sachi”. The mikë is mainly seasonal vegetables, specifically fresh onions and bright red tomatoes. The kagura has two people, one dancer and one drummer, and the dancer offers a tamagushi that has bells on it.

This is a simple matsuri, and has enough detail for the players to imagine what is happening when it is performed, and the personae petition the kami.

Matsuri Elements

The players need to be able to describe the matsuri that their personae have created, and most players do not know anything about Shinto matsuri when they start playing, so the game system needs to support the description. This is the most important function of elements. The elements are things that are included in the matsuri, and can be mentioned in the description. As noted earlier, elements come in two types: generic elements, and special elements.

Generic elements are simply ways to describe the results of the basic rules given earlier. Every roll adds a new element to the creation, chosen from a list, and there are two types of generic element for each skill: those corresponding to concepts, and those corresponding to embodiments. Norito concepts might be “a long description of the mikë”, “a poetic description of the jinja”, or “a detailed offering of thanks”. For the embodiment, the elements would be particular phrases from the norito, such as “Kakemakumo kashikoki Tamao Ohkami no ohmae ni”. For mikë, the concepts would be things like “a lot of seafood”, “seasonal vegetables”, or “various kinds of rice”, while embodiment might be “a whole bream with its scales on”, “sweetcorn and aubergines”, or “mochi rice cakes dyed red and white”. For kagura, the concept might be “offering a tamagushi”, “purifying an area”, or “offering flowers”, while the embodiment might be “a drum beat”, “carrying a sword”, or “holding flowers”. Putting the selected elements together allows the players to describe, in general terms, what the matsuri looks like.

Specific elements naturally serve the same function, but they also have a mechanical effect. One way they can work is to be mechanically better than the generic elements, so that the personae get more effect for a lower difficulty. However, this is not the only possibility. A conceptual element might allow greater benefit at a lower conception cost, but a higher difficulty than the standard possibilities. Embodiment elements might require a roll against a difficulty of 7 to incorporate, but add 3 points towards completion of the matsuri, no matter what the current value. If the current value of the matsuri is greater than 4, that is easier than trying to improve the matsuri by the standard method. Embodiment elements might also require some sort of roll to apply successfully, like the performance roll for kagura, but, in return, give a useful bonus if the roll does succeed.

Some specific elements will specify the bonuses that they add to the matsuri. That is, an element might always grant an additional point of shin’i, and not an additional die to roll. Normally, these bonuses count against the steps of improvement that the basic rules allow, but sometimes the improvements offered by an element might count as fewer steps, even none at all, or an element might give the personae a free choice of one or more bonus steps, beyond those gained under the normal rules.

Elements that increase the total for a creation regardless of its current level are particularly useful if the personae have added concepts to the creation after the initial stage. This normally adds the full difficulty of the concept, which makes it much harder to create the thing than it would be if the concept had been integrated from the beginning. The ability to add to the total even if the roll does not exceed the current total, however, might make this possible.

The discussion so far has only explicitly discussed the basic matsuri, making a simple request to the kami. However, the other types of matsuri can easily be fitted into the same framework. The other effects require a certain number of steps of improvement above the basic matsuri, and if there is no request, then there may be a bonus to the number of steps available. This extension of the rules is conceptually straightforward, so I want to discuss other elements of the game before coming back to it. First, however, I would like to give an example of creating a matsuri.