The Raven Paradox

The Raven Paradox is a problem for Nicod's Criterion. The statement (1) "All non-black things are non-ravens" is logically equivalent to (2) "All ravens are black", so anything that confirms one should confirm the other.

According to Nicod's Criterion, a black raven is irrelevant to (1) and confirms (2), while a piece of white chalk is irrelevant to (2) and confirms (1).


The main source is Hempel 1945. The issues are taken up in Lipton 1993, Chapter 6.
Home Page HPS Index Page

Copyright David Chart 1997